Simple 100W Inverter 12VDC to 220VAC

This is Simple and Low-cost electronic circuit project for 100W inverter 12VDC to 220VAC circuit Diagram. The following diagram is an inverter circuit which will give you 220V AC 50Hz with maximum power of 100W.

100W Inverter 12VDC to 220VAC circuit diagram:

100W Inverter circuit diagram

This inverter built using transistors both the square wave generator and the amplifier.The Q1 and Q2 used generate square wave. Q5-Q8 amplify the signal and the transformer to increase the AC/square wave current from 12VAC to 220V AC 50HZ.

Inverter PCB layout:
Inverter circuit diagram


Micro Inverter circuit DC voltage AC 12v x110v

This is a micro-inverter DC voltage to AC from a 12v battery can generate a voltage of 110 or 220 volts AC and a frequency of 50Hz to 60Hz.

Micro Inverter circuit DC voltage AC 12v x110v Circuit Diagram:

Micro Inverter Circuit Diagram

The circuit is very simple and does not need a printed circuit board, It is composed of two transistors oscillators that generate the square wave pulse to the transformer in the case is 10 +10 and its output 220V or 110V. This circuit is 50Hz, but can be changed by changing the value of RC .

Inverter Circuit Diagram

This circuit has the power transistor and that depends on the transformer.


250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

Here is Simple Electronic Circuit Project of   250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter Circuit Diagram.

250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

This is my schematic design of a Pulse Width Modulator DC/AC inverter using the chip SG3524 .
I have built this design and using it as a backup to power up all my house when outages occur.

250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

220V Power Inverter

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DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

250 to 5000 watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

250 to 5000 watts Inverter

250 to 5000 watts

220V Power Inverter

watts PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter

PWM DC/AC 220V Power Inverter


>The schematic circuit design is for a 250 watt output, while the pics are of my 1500 watts inverter that i built, to increase the power of the circuit you have to add more of the Q7 and Q8 transistors in parallel, each pair you add will increase your power by 250 watts, ex: to get 750 watts of power from the inverter you need to add in parallel 2 of Q7 and 2 of Q8 to the original design.

>If you increase the power transistors you have to enlarge the T2 transformer to match the new needs, the circuit's transformer is rated 25 amps to handle 250 watts of 220v, for every 1 additional amp you need on the 220v side you have to increase 10 amps on the 12v side, of course there are limits to the thickness of the winding so if you need more than 750 watts i recommend that you use a 24VDC supply instead of 12 volts:

DC voltage and Transformer "T2" winding recommendation:
Power     Supply     Winding
750w       12VDC     P:24V "12-0-12" / S:220V
1500w     24VDC     P:48V "24-0-24" / S:220V
2250w     36VDC     P:72V "36-0-36" / S:220V
3000w     48VDC     P:96V "48-0-48" / S:220V
3750w     60VDC     P:120V "60-0-60" / S:220V
4500w     72VDC     P:144V "72-0-72" / S:220V
5250w     84VDC     P:168V "84-0-84" / S:220V
*The transformer should be "center tapped" at the primary side.
**You can make the secondary 110v if needed.
***The transformer in the pic is a custom made (48V center tapped / 220v ) 2000 watts, weights like 10 kilos.

>R1 is to set the PWM duty cycle to 220v. Connect voltmeter to the output of your inverter and vary VR1 till the voltage reads 220V.

>R2 is to set the frequency to 50 or 60 Hz (R2 range is between 40Hz to 75Hz), so guys that do not have a frequency meter are advised to blindly put this variable resistor mid-way which should drop you in the range of 50~60 Hz.
If you want you can substitue the variable resistor with a fixed resistor using the following formula: F = 1.3 / (RxC)
in our case to get a 50Hz output we remove both the 100K and the variable 100K both from pin 6 and we put instead a 260K fixed resistor and we leave the 0.1uF (the 104 cap) as it is, this change should give out a fixed 50Hz as per the formula :
1.3 / (260,000 ohm x 0.0000001 farad) = 50Hz
But in reality it will not exactly give 50Hz because the 260K resistor has a specific error value margin so does the capacitor, that's why i recommend a variable resistor so that accurate calibration can be achieved.

>Use either tantalum or polyester film "as in pic" for the 104 caps, ceramic disc caps change value once hot and this in turn changes the frequency of the inverter so they are not recommended.

>Pin 10 of the SG3524 can be used to auto shut down the inverter, once a positive voltage is given instead of negative to pin10, the SG3524 will stop oscillating. This is useful for persons wanting to add some cosmetic makeup to their inverters like overload cutoff, low battery cutoff or overheating cutoff.

>Wiring connections on the power stage side should be thick enough to handle the huge amps drain from the batteries. I marked them with dark black on the schema also I included a pic so you see how thick those wires must be.

>The design does not include a battery charger since each person will be building a custom version of the inverter with specific power needs. If you are ordering a custom made transformer you can ask them to take out for you an additional output wire on the primary side to give 14v (between point 0 and this new wire) and use it to charge a 12v battery, of course this needs a seperate circuit to control charging auto cut-off. But anyway this is not advisable because it will shorten the life of the transformer itself since using it as a charger will toast the enamel coating layer of the copper wires over time. Anyway .. YES can be done to reduce cost.

>A cooling fan will be needed to reduce heat off the heat sinks and transformer, i recommend getting a 220v fan and connecting it to the output T2 transformer, when you power up the circuit the fan will start this will always give you a simple way to know that 220v is present and everything is OK.. You can use a computer's old power supply fan if you like.
Note that the fan must suck air out from the inverter case and NOT blow inside, so install it the correct way or it will be useless.
Also note how I fixed both the heat sinks and where the fan is, in a way that the fan sucks hot air from like a channel between the 2 heatsinks.

>2 circuit breakers are recommended instead of fuses, one on the DC side and one on the AC side, depending on your design
Ex: for a 24vDC ( 1500 watts design ) put a 60Amp breaker on the DC side and a 6Amp on the AC side.
For every 1amp of 220vAC you will be draining like 8 to 10 Amps from the 12v battery, make your calculations !

> The 2 Heat sinks should be big enough to cool the transistors, they are separate and should NOT touch each other. "see the pics"

>Important: If you're building a big design that uses more than 24VDC as power source, make sure not to supply the driver circuit with more than 24v maximum. (EX: If you have 4 batteries 4x12 = 48v , connect the v+ supply of the driver circuit to the second battery's (+) terminal with a thin 1 mm wire which is more than enough. this supplies the driver circuit with +24v while supplies the power transformer with +48v)

> "Optional" : Deep Cycle batteries are your best choice, consider them for best results .. read more

> Be cautious when building this circuit it involves high voltage which is lethal, any part you touch when the circuit is ON could give you a nasty painful jolt, specially the heat-sinks, never touch them when the circuit is on to see if the transistors are hot !! I ate it several times :)

> The optional "Low voltage warning" is already embedded in the PCB layout, you can disregard it and not install it's components if you do not needed. It does not affect the functionality of the main circuit.

> The Motorola 2N6277 is a heavy duty power transistor, it is used in many US tanks for it's reliability but unfortunately it is a very hard to find part, instead you can substitute each 2N6277 with 2 x 2N3773 or any equivalent.

> I've included an optional "Battery level indicator" circuit diagram that has 4 LEDs, you can see it installed on the front panel of my inverter pic, it is functioning great and shows precisely how much juice the batteries still have. I have included a small relay that is powered by the last LED to auto shutoff the inverter once last LED is off.

>Also included an optional "Overload circuit", it is very easy to build and can be calibrated to the desired overload current threshold cutoff point through the potentiometer VR1.

R1 is rated 5watts for inverters upto 1000 watts. For bigger versions of the inverter like 1000 to 3000 watts inverters, replace R1 (1 ohm, 5watts) with (1 ohm, 17watts) which should handle loads upto 10 VA.
Make sure you install a proper relay to handle big current drains.

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Elegant Bathroom Mirror Lights with Motion Detector

The inspiration for this project came from the artwork shown here, prepared by my neighbor who is a carpenter. The project was nothing more than a bathroom washbasin mirror with a bunch of lamps around it. After some experiments with lightbulbs and rocker switches, I decided that it was a dangerous idea to have a rocker switch (made of obscure materials) connected to a fatal AC mains supply very close to my wife when her hands are soaked with water. However, I still cherished it, so to spice things up, I just revamped the concept and added some cool features.



First, the enclosure/frame is made of wood and adheres to the rules of standard mirror sizes (thanks to my neighbor). Bulb holders were screwed to the front panel of the frame, with its wires routed through the backplate of the frame. There are also some small wooden pieces to act as spacers between the backplate and the wall — not too bad!

Solder Fumes

Because I wanted to drop the simple rocker switch and also sought the assistance of an automatic switch, I decided to employ a passive infrared motion detector-based switch mechanism to drive the lightbulbs. For some reason, all of the electronics are enclosed in a separate plastic enclosure with enough wires for interconnection. Let’s make a list of early electric/electronic parts:
  • AC230V/1-W White LED Globe Bulb x20
  • PIR Motion Detector Module x1
  • Plastic Enclosure (duh!) x1
Circuit Tracks

Motion Detector

The first part of the schematic is a transformer-less DC power supply for converting the 230-V AC input to about a 16-Vdc output. This DC output is used to power the rest of the electronics, excluding the motion sensor. The very popular, yet cheap, DYP-ME003 PIR sensor module is used here for the detection of human motion. Refer to its datasheet for technical specification, calibration information, etc. Because the module has a provision to attach one light-sensitive resistor (LDR/photoresistor/CdS cell), a 5-mm standard LDR is attached to the module after a minor mod.

This drives the switch to be operational only when the detection area is sufficiently dark (the mirror lights up when one enters the darkened bathroom). For this, just detach the fresnel lens of the module, carefully solder the LDR on the vacant pads denoted as “CdS,” ensuring that it faces toward the fresnel lens, and retain the fresnel lens in front. Next, flip the module to replace the 1M (105) SMD resistor with a 100K (104) SMD resistor. Note that one end of this resistor (and one lead of the photoresistor) is linked to “trigger disable” (pin 9) of the BISS0001 IC. The other end of the resistor is tied to the 3.3-V (Vcc) rail, whereas the second lead of the photoresistor is connected with the 0-V (GND) rail.

Tail End

Elegant Bathroom Mirror Lights with Motion Detector

Lights with Motion Detector
The PIR motion detector might be tricky to implement. The light coming from the LED lightbulbs may mess with the ambient light sensor inside the motion detector module, and this may cause erroneous operation when the mirror is alive. So it is necessary to isolate the module from the light source. Not a big deal!



Shock-proof Remote Switch

Using this shock proof remote switch circuit, you can control any AC/DC appliance remotely through inexpensive, low-voltage cabling and a standard push switch. The circuit can easily support cable length up to 25 metres. The load is triggered by a low voltage signal that helps avoid electrical shock.

Remote switch circuit

The circuit is built around dual D-type flip-flop IC CD4013 (IC1), which contains two positive-edge-triggered D-type flip-flops. One flip-flop is wired in toggle mode, while the other is not used. The first flip-flop is clocked via its pin 3 once switch S1 is pressed. This causes its output at pin 1 to change state from low (off) to high (on), or vice versa.

Npn transistor T1 (BC548) is used to drive electromagnetic relay RL1 (12V, 1C/O). Depending on the AC/DC load voltage rating, connect the AC/DC power supply through relay contacts as shown in the figure. Resistors R1 and R2, diode D1 and capacitor C2 are used to eliminate the effect of switch-bouncing. The combination of resistor R3 and capacitor C3 provides power-‘on’ reset.

Shock-proof Remote Switch Circuit Diagram:

Switch Circuit Diagram

Working of the circuit is simple. Suppose you want to activate any AC load from some distance. Connect the load as indicated in the figure and provide the required power supply of 230V AC, 50Hz at the supply terminal. Extend switch S1 to the desired place through low voltage cable. When you press switch S1 momentarily, the load will turn on. On pressing switch S1 again, the load will turn off. Thus the cycle repeats.

The same circuit can be used to trigger high power loads (water pump, generator, etc) by replacing the relay by higher contact-current-rating relay.

In the circuit, push-to-on switch (S1) is used to activate/de-activate the load but the same design can be used with other triggering methods like IR, RF etc.

Construction & testing

Assemble the circuit on a general-purpose PCB and enclose in a suitable ABS cabinet. Ensure that all the mains wiring is done properly and it is completely isolated so that there is no possibility of accidental electrical contact with the low voltage side of the circuit. Push-to-on switch S1 can be connected using a two-core screened cable or something similar. Use a standard 230V AC to 12V DC adaptor for this toggle switch circuit. Alternatively, you can use a 12V battery.

Author by: T.K. Hareendran Copyright: EFY
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